Bosnian "pyramids": hills shaped by Romans - by H.M. The King of Bosnia Mensur Omerbashich PhD

It is likely that Roman legionaries had (re)shaped Bosnia's hills to use them for observation posts and other usual military activities, thus securing the post against siegecraft. Strategic hill-slopes were flattened and aligned in the E-W direction to create optimal conditions for sunlight and moonlight to expose intruders, day or night. Similarly, Visoko tunnels were part of a well-known ancient military tactics of sapping, used often to undermine and conquer fortifications such as the very top of Visočica hill which hosted our medieval kings' forts. Today the topic of "pyramids" pops up whenever Anglo, Roman and other axes attempt to deal a decisive blow to each other in the battlefield Bosnia -- their favorite hotspot for well over two millennia now...

Sunday, April 6, 2014

Big Bang downgraded to a bang in the first scientific proof of Multiverse, by Omerbashich (2006)

Theoretical physicist Dr. Mensur Omerbashich claims precedence in proving Multiverse, Scale Invariance (symmetry)

Boston-Sarajevo, 21.03.2014.  After the 17/18 March, 2014, release of the first claim of confirmation of the (Linde) cosmological theory aka Inflationary cosmology, HM King of Bosnia and All of Illyria (titular) Mensur Omerbashich (PhD theoretical geophysics, UNB Canada, 2003) has made the precedence claim for scientific confirmation of Multiverse - the core requirement of the Linde's theory. Namely, the Linde "Inflation" (Linde's theory of the origin of universes properly called as it has little to do with inflationary theory that never worked so that Guth has recanted it according to Linde in a Financial Times audio-interview) requires infinite vacuum-energy filling the space beyond our known universe, for any universe to come into being. Therefore, as Omerbashich proved, universes continue infinitely – a fundamentally different understanding of reality than previous viewpoints, which is commonly referred to as Multiverse.

Namely, Dr. Omerbashich was the first theorist who, while in Berkeley in 2005, proved Multiverse (of so-called Type I, as Scale Invariance doesn't allow for other Types) experimentally-theoretically from physical observations, by mathematically and multiphysically demonstrating the existence of infinitely many universes, or Multiverse for short (not to be confused for Parallel Worlds or Many Worlds imaginary concept from quantum physics): He did this by successfully expressing the Newtonian gravitational constant G, and thus gravity g too, via speed of light c. There, G and c were taken in their absolute forms (as proportions) since no one knows what physics applies in outer universes.  G was thus considered without units which Newton anyway appended to G only in order to close his own (our universe's) physics mathematically... (Here "only" is not meant out of disrespect for Newton, but to say that Multiverse was starting physical hypothesis).

The Multiverse concept was taken as the starting physical hypothesis by ad infinitum generalizing the Earth-Moon system’s non-temporal secondary (magnified mass-resonance) gravitational effects:  In his proof, Omerbashich used more than 10 billion 1Hz gravity measurements, spanning one decade, from (Canadian) superconducting gravimeter – the world's most accurate instrument used also for verifying G.

Omerbashich's expressing G via c on both quantum and mechanist scales (as Einstein hinted at in 1930s after stumbling upon a most remarkable relationship between values of gravity, g, and of velocity of light, c - but then forgot all about it) tells how quantum mechanics and gravity are unified. Furthermore, as Maxwell hinted in 1870: "[Maxwell's theory] denies action at a distance and attributes electric action to tensions and pressures in an all-pervading medium, these stresses being the same in kind with those familiar to engineers, and the medium being identical with that in which light is supposed to be propagated. [This theory and a theory of electricity by Riemann, Lorenz, and Neumann] are found to explain not only the phenomena by the aid of which they were originally constructed, but other phenomena which were not thought of or perhaps not known at the time; and both have independently arrived at the same numerical result, which gives the absolute velocity of light in terms of electrical quantities. That theories apparently so fundamentally opposed should have so large a field of truth common to both is a fact the philosophical importance of which we cannot fully appreciate till we have reached a scientific altitude from which the true relation between hypotheses so different can be seen.135 years later, Omerbashich has succeeded in deriving the absolute velocity of light - in terms of gravity in a mechanical oscillator, showing the underlying engineering concept (of mechanical oscillators) with which all forces of nature can be unified, as Einstein, Maxwell and others hoped for.

As a US citizen, Omerbashich had sent his proof for verification to David Wineland of NIST back in 2008, however Wineland submitted it to Nature three months later as his own, and received the 2012 Physics Nobel Prize for this "abridging of quantum and mechanist worlds"; alas without offering a theory for the solution that resolved the greatest mystery of quantum physics of all time (for which, oddly enough, he only shared the Prize). Omerbashich counterclaimed the Prize: British Nobel laureate for quantum physics Brian Josephson agreed in a debate with Omerbashich: "I accept that it is a remarkable coincidence". Prior to Wineland, who thus plagiarized the quantum part of the Omerbashich's discovery, the Italians Salvio and Strumia tried plagiarizing the theoretical part of Omerbashich discovery which proved Scale Invariance only one day prior to the "historic" BICEP announcement. This synchronization tells that the "package" was carefully planned as a master-theft of the Omerbashich's discovery in all of its fundamental aspects. This also because another Catholic, the Albanian Mersini, had similarly tried plagiarizing the cosmological part of the Omerbashich's discovery, by claiming another universe's gravitational tug on our known universe, although Omerbashich claimed this first and explicitly, in his fundamental discovery of 2006.

It is not a coincidence that only Catholics are the culprits. Namely, Multiverse contradicts the original Big Bang theory the way Roman-Catholic priest Lemaître envisioned it while most likely (being a priest with a science degree, rather than a science evangelist as some kindly portray him) basing it on Genesis trying to make Big Bang the final word of cosmology, and our known universe all that there is. The Omerbashich proof of Hyperverse of infinitely many mutually orbiting-oscillating multiverses (Hyperverse) is the first scientific evidence that Genesis, as the Roman-Catholic Church’s main doctrine, is wrong. The Omerbashich discovery can be summarized in form of a most basic function: g = f (c).  The Omerbashich proof is a part of his cosmological Hyperresonance Unifying Theory (HUT) that has seen more than ten confirmations and strongly supporting indications over the past two years since first published. Some of those, such as the European Space Agency’s Planck Mission, could independently corroborate the Omerbashich proof.  While it demonstrated the existence of infinitely many universes both mathematically and multi-physically (from Earth's own most accurate gravity measurements; without any universe's physical units), HUT also confirmed the string theory’s paradigm on oscillatory rather than particlegenic reality.

In addition, HUT made the first proof of Albert Einstein's famous view on quantum physics ("-God plays no dice"), which showed that quantum physics is locally real i.e. objectocentric. It is primarily a byproduct of secondary - here resonant - effects of tides in the Earth-Moon system that naturally tends to impose its own resonant properties as common to all particles within the system. Quantum physics will thus obey different but still seemingly (or even similarly) stochastic rules in another system of oscillatory-orbitally interacting heavenly bodies. This basically shows there is nothing strange about alleged strangeness in quantum physics realm.  Soon after the news of BICEP2 result broke out, certain interest groups opposed to the Roman-Catholic Church's manipulations started questioning BICEP2 by claiming cosmic dust was the reason for this earliest deciphered uniformity. This has become the prevalent view in the science community, so the Church is trying to manipulate the Planck Mission's data in order to falsely match them to/prove the BICEP2 results. BICEP2 however is a forgery from the outset.  Mathematical equations, namely the Omerbashich equations cannot be argued about, or, in the words of Einstein: "A mathematical equation stands forever".

Omerbashich's proofs (here and here) of Scale Invariance can mean Type I Multiverse only, not Type II as Omerbashich misled the Church to believe. He thus made them attempt at quantum- and similarly fairytale-like approaches to creating Genesis v.2.0, of course unsuccessfully. Led by their desire to update their Genesis at any cost, they then also attempted to create the forgeries of Omerbashich's discovery, as listed above. This, seemingly slight variation which Omerbashich had introduced in his results, has largely enabled him to expose the Church for what it is: a thief of his intellectual property.

Multiverse has been proven experimentally first by Dr. Mensur Omerbashich in Berkeley in 2005 and then 2012, from 10+ billion gravity measurements taken by the (Canadian) superconducting gravimeter as the Earth’s most accurate instrument used for studying G, as well as mathematically (by expressing G via c on quantum and mechanist scales, as first hinted by Einstein in 1930s), and multi-physically (w/o units of any universe):

The Bosnian Royal Family
P.O. Box 1
Sarajevo, Bosnia

Academic version of the claim is published in:
Journal of the European Royal Society 3(1):3-4 (2014)
(Open Access)
H.M. Omerbashich's profile (in English).
The Bosnian Royal Family was created in A.D. 1141, and it is the sole royal family of Bosnia.

Source: The Bosnian Royal Family Press Room

Friday, January 11, 2013

2012 Physics Nobel Laureates Wineland And Haroche Stole The Discovery, Says Crown Prince

Royal Swedish Academy As A Crime Scene – It is revealed that 2012 Nobel laureates for physics have stolen the rewarded discovery that was submitted to one of the recipient’s public NIST office for verification back in 2008.

Stockholm/Sarajevo, January 11, 2013 – An official report was submitted to Nobel Committee and Swedish Police, offering proof beyond doubt that this year’s recipients of Nobel Prize in physics, David J. Wineland and Serge Haroche, were awarded the Prize for a discovery they acquired from Bosnian Crown Prince Mensur Omerbashich in 2008, while at the same time betraying public trust in responsible office Wineland fills at NIST.

Their “ingenious” discovery is actually Dr. Omerbashich’s discovery of how quantum and mechanist-scales physics are related/cancelled via simple fundamental ratio of 369.2 (gravitational resonance). The discoverer had sent his result to NIST in 2008 expecting a comment and verification from their publicly funded office. Instead of responding properly, Wineland (of NIST) forged his research and presented the discovery as his own. Haroche is at fault by association past 2008.

All Wineland did was trivially use a gas with affinity equal to Dr. Omerbashich’s fundamental ratio (369.2 kJ mol−1 –> Argon), while hiding the fact that he learned about this fundamental ratio from Dr. Omerbashich via personal communication. He thus “ingeniously” annulled the “magical” causes of entanglement. He still pretends he “doesn’t know” why of all beams, it is Argon which works for this specific purpose. Also, Dr. Omerbashich clearly states in his work that entanglement is not real and Wineland knew this also from Dr. Omerbashich. But instead of admitting he/they just verified another man’s discovery, Wineland and Haroche presented it as their own while Dr. Omerbashich waited (and waited) for a reply.

Since the recipients have obtained the discovery through a heinous act of crime, they must be stripped of the Prize regardless of its rules since no one is above law. The rules themselves must be amended in this case in order to comply with the law for the present case and for all future, so that criminals with degrees could never again be awarded the highest accolade.

Basic information and documentation including parts of the correspondence can be found at:

Source: H.R.H. Crown Prince Mensur Omerbashich of Bosnia
(Ph.D. Theoretical Geophysics, UNB Canada 2004)

The Bosnian Royal Family
P.O. Box 1

Monday, December 31, 2012

Is Our Universe Tidally Engaged With Another Universe?

By Alan Gray

 "Scientist develops absolute cosmological theory, discovering how to express gravitation in terms of speed of light.

The theory of hyperresonance shows gravitation is stringdom's eigenoscillation at exactly multiples of c..."

                                                                                                                           Read Full Story

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

All strong earthquakes are caused by astronomical alignments

Empirical proof (2011) of the georesonator concept (the Earth thought of as a forced mechanical oscillator) is now available as a preprint. Strong (~M6+) seismicity on Earth occurs due to magnification of Earth masses' (mostly the mantle's) resonance during the Earth's long (>3 days) astronomical alignments to astronomical objects in our solar system. The concept is akin to a bridge eventually collapsing due to soldiers step-marching across it.  Thus earthquake precursors such as atmospheric or Sun activity ones are not due to some mysterious "outgoing radiation", but are a part of the same outer forcing that acts naturally along the forcing towards the Earth.
Instrumentation-data proof (2007), by successfully matching world's most accurate gravity field records (decadal, 1Hz accelerations from the Canadian superconducting gravimeter) to decadal M7+ seismicity at or up to 3 days before luni-solar alignments only.  This is now extended to the solar system as a whole.
Theoretical proof (2008), by showing that absolute generalization - so to apply to all universes at all times - of georesonator to hyperresonator (our Universe thought of as a mechanical oscillator tidally forced by outer universes), results in a first-ever analytical expression for a physical constant: the Newtonian gravitational constant, G.  Gravitation, and not physics, is scalable along a scale, s, so that: G = s e^2, thus disproving both Einstein's and Planck's assumptions on modifiable physics along largest and smallest scales respectively, as being fundamentally flawed.

Wednesday, March 24, 2010

World leading institute dates Visocica concrete to Roman era

In what seems to be the first credible scientific analysis of the Visoko building material, experts from the Politecnico di Torino - Italy's oldest technical and "one of the best Universities worldwide in its field" - have confirmed that "cement-like material is inert and porous concrete like that in ancient Rome".

So far we only had mumbo-jumbo hearsay coming from Mr. Osmanagich and "freemasons". Now it's official: the "Mu civilization" had nothing to do with Bosnia! Do you hear it, Mr. Hitchner? (Mr. Hitchner is an archaeologist specializing in Roman legions, and a creator of the Dayton Peace Accord meant to knock down the Old World Order of the UN just like the Munich Accord of 1938 had knocked down the League of Nations'; the only time CNN reported every half hour of the Visoko "pyramids" was on the day Bosnian Parliament was about to ratify the results of aggression -- the Czechoslovakia situation of 1938, replayed).

Feels good to learn you have a "psychic ability" of foretelling the outcome of complex chemical analyses years ahead.

UPDATE, 01 MAY 2010: shortly after I published the above article, the report on the Turin (Torino) analysis became unavailable on the server. A site search for keyword "Bosnia" returns these remnants of the purged report, "forgetting" to mention that the cement is from the Roman era. Now that's the "Freemasonry" love for truth -- caught red-handed!

Thursday, September 20, 2007

Visočica: the lost city of Hedum Castellum

One of the great mysteries of archaeology of Bosnia is the story of a lost Illyrian city that the Romans destroyed during Third Illyrian War (see the article of September 2nd). Namely, Roman records refer to this city in a brief note stating that, in year A.D. 20, the Romans had connected this (newly conquered) city via road with the city of Salina [near today's Split in Croatia] some 230 km away, which then places this lost Illyrian city in the Visoko area. After finally conquering Illyria in A.D. 9, the Romans settled in the area, calling the city Hedum Castellum Daesitiatium. Indeed, remains were found in the inner Bosnia of the Roman settlements from after they conquered Illyria proper (Bosnia), so there are several candidate-locations for Hedum Castellum. Though records are missing on Roman settlements from times prior to Third Illyrian War, even incomplete sources such as the Bojanovski's review paper (see article of 12 September) state indeed that for instance the Roman legionaries likely built such military posts in Bosnia before Third Illyrian War. Bojanovski then goes on to say that the Romans used topography-dominant peaks for their military posts in general, from where they could oversee entire valleys, as well as establish their light-signaling communication systems. He even lists some of those peaks located in central Bosnia, noting correctly that some of them resemble semi-pyramids. He noted that the Illyrians preferred building their settlements on the dominant terrain, due to the geopolitical situation of Bosnia (located at various crossroads), so frequent looting by invading aggressors required building refugee settlements, for which the Bosnian hills naturally offered best protection.
Clearly, even the Bojanovski paper as a rare overview source on Visoko in the Antiquity goes in favor of my suggestion. Thus it's entirely plausible that Visočica and the complex of surrounding hills actually represent an area of ancient Illyrian (terraced) settlements that the Romans had conquered, destroyed and subsequently reconfigured for military purposes.

Wednesday, September 12, 2007

Source on Visoko supports my suggestion

As it turns out, the person under alias "Stultitia", who earlier contributed his/her comments to this blog, has indeed posted a scan of a book on Visoko history, as promised. But it turned out to be rather a paper collection than a book, titled "Visoko and the surroundings through history - Part One" [image]. It does contain however a Dr. Bojanovski's paper on the Antiquity era. But as I expected (browse comments in this blog for complete discussions), and as the very book says it in the editorial introduction on p.6 [see image below], modern knowledge on the Roman period in Visoko area is extremely scarce. In addition, the source warns that Dr. Bojanovski's paper is a rather unreliable and rare text on the subject. This strengthens the case for my idea on Visoko and other Bosnian hills as having been shaped (i.e., their slopes cleaned, ironed and oriented) during the (co-)Roman eras. Note that the book even recognizes (see bold text in the caption) the geopolitical importance of the Visoko area to the Romans as an already established scientific fact. Thus my idea doesn't run in parallel with historical science, but it's rather a legitimate expansion on what's already known as the scientific truth on Visoko history in terms of geostrategy. Of course, this conclusion is entirely independent of what Bojanovski's paper actually says, since it's not simply the validity of the paper itself that the editors questioned (they wouldn't have included it if that was the case!). Instead, their objection concerned the paper's depth and reliability - both being troubles at a general level; thus their objection is a useful mast of my claim.
English: "Geographically, the term 'Visoko and the surroundings' or 'Visoko area' (or 'Visoko' for short, as used in this book), refers mainly to the Visoko municipal borders as they are defined today [1970-ies]. And that is the area of the medieval county or principality of Bosnia, i.e. Bosnia in one of the narrowest meanings. Deviations occurred only in those chapters and topics where, due to lack of material, or because of specificity of cultural-historic events, it was not possible to get an appropriate picture - not even approximately so - unless somewhat wider regions of upper Bosnia were considered as well. Such is the case with the topic on prehistoric metal eras and - especially - the chapter on the Roman rule, authored by Dr. Ivo Bojanovski. The textual extent of that (second) chapter requires a separate explanation. The Antiquity period has been very poorly researched in the immediate vicinity of Visoko; besides, the importance of this era is highlighted by the fact that it was precisely during the Roman rule when the first reliable proofs appear of a wider Visoko valley being one of the most important geopolitical spots of Bosnia."
A major consequence of my idea then is that the Illyrian-Bosnian civilization built terraces on the Visočica and surrounding hills' slopes. This becomes even highly probable given that the Dacians (today's Romanians) also built terraced cities, just a few thousand kilometers to the east from Bosnia. Besides, the Dacians and the Illyrians were neighbors and contemporaries too, so probably same builders and engineering concepts were involved in soliciting and construction of those habitats in both civilizations. Also, it can be expected that both civilizations had suffered the same type of destruction that would have been conducted in a similar manner and by the same invader - the Roman Empire.
Two crucial material points however where the Bojanovski's review paper provides support for my suggestion are as follows. First, the paper references a Roman source claiming that Third Illyrian War was so heavy that at places - narrow valleys of central Bosnia in particular - "battles were conducted using bare hands", while the enemy was referred to as "very brave and able in the art of war". Thus it's only logical to expect of the Romans to have committed horrendous acts of violence, purely out of revenge to such a difficult foe the Illyrians had been; especially given what's now known on how the Dacians were punished for the same sort of resistance a century later. Second, Bojanovski mentions that one of the reasons why there are no whole finds from the Antiquity in Bosnia is because "they were destroyed in the migration of peoples in 5th and 6th century". Note this terminology was entirely in the spirit of the 1980-ies (Serb-dominated) communist Yugoslavia. Of course, what was meant was actually the gruesome genocidal acts by the penetrating Slavic hordes, which is the truth that neither he nor anyone else in Bosnia was allowed to speak up until now.
Note: See my other blog for more on geopolitical aspects of the Visoko region:

Sunday, September 9, 2007

GEOSTRATEGY - won't find it in Britannica

"Geostrategy, a subfield of geopolitics, is a type of foreign policy guided principally by geographical factors as they inform, constrain, or affect political and military planning. As with all strategies, geostrategy is concerned with matching means to ends—in this case, a country's resources (whether they are limited or extensive) with its geopolitical objectives (which can be local, regional, or global). According to Gray and Sloan, geography is "the mother of strategy." Geostrategists, as distinct from geopoliticians, advocate proactive strategies, and approach geopolitics from a nationalist point-of-view. As with all political theories, geostrategies are relevant principally to the context in which they were devised: the nationality of the strategist, the strength of his or her country's resources, the scope of their country's goals, the political geography of the time period, and the technological factors that affect military, political, economic, and cultural engagement." (Wikipedia)
Isn't it remarkable indeed that GEOSTRATEGY, a word so important and so frequently cited (Google returns: 100,000) cannot be found in a high-esteemed encyclopedia such as the most famous and most praised one of them all - the Britannica? As I mentioned it earlier: in science, things omitted can matter more than things considered. Thus is the case with the Britannica that, to make things even weirder, does report on strategy - from the battlefield to the national level - but stops short of reporting on geostrategy as the "strategy of all strategies". It's with this thought in mind that I write this blog. My goal is to expose those geostrategies that are the culprit behind the millennial suffering of the Bosnian people. I started one month ago today, with a curious case of the "Bosnian pyramids" and the surprising involvement of Russia's geostrategist Khavroshkin. Unfortunately, as it turned out by now, not only that the case isn't about archaeology at all, but it isn't about the corruption of Bosnian officials either; the two (too obvious) views held mostly by people who possess admirable education, but in a field unrelated to geostrategy. [Photo below: a snap of the "Foundation of Bosnian Pyramid" official Web site; note the Russian dating system on the computer used in maintaining the site.]

Just as the Romans had shaped some Bosnian hills (probably used as terraced habitats by the Illyrian and to them contemporary civilizations such as the Dacians) for geostrategy reasons, the event that followed the fall of Rome - the horrors of the Slavic-Serbian expansionism - had to do with geostrategy as well. In fact, apart from the British animosity to Vatican, the Slavic expansion westward from the Drina River is the single most important outside factor that shapes Bosnia's destiny, today as ever - starting some 1500 years ago. In simple terms, applied geostrategy (that's been strangling Bosnia for over two millennia now) is actually a series of advancements in the field, made by one or more nations in order to obtain advantage over another nation whose resources, man power, or both are seen by the culprit nations as an obstacle to their own geostrategic advancements. Obviously, being situated at a crossroads of mutually confronted groups of nations (interest zones) it's quite possible that Bosnia is the most "unfortunate" of all places on Earth, and a critical point where the system of international law either flourishes or collapses entirely.
But geostrategy is a serious subject on its own merits, so now I conclude this blog and start a new one: Be it noted in the end that the disbelief that some may feel while reading this and the successor blog can be related to one's high expectations. May they rest assured however that it's never the Nobelists (except for "Peace Prize" recipients) who create murderous geostrategies. It's the average type of minds (often absorbed by their own career goals) that create geostrategies! Actually, greatest minds of our time, such as Nikola Tesla have mostly acted as foes to geostrategists, falling under the magnifying glass of secret services of all kinds. On the opposite end stood people like Henry Kissinger. Obviously, no big brains involved in the latter group really, just a bunch of warmongers accompanied by their sales people in the field: spies and wannabe thinkers... Then, simplest concepts apply.
Ah, what a great place the world could have been!

Friday, September 7, 2007

Serbs, from Drač 478 to Srebrenica 1995

NOTE: this article is based largely on:
J.B. Bury, History of the Late Roman Empire, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London

The Slavs are first mentioned under that name in the 4th century by Byzantine bishop Caesarius, who describes them as inhabitants of today's Belarus and Ukraine. In order to understand who Serbs are however, and what it is that they want in Bosnia today, as well as to explain why they behave so barbarically even in the 21st century one has to know the basics of their history and origins. And only by penetrating deep into their collective psychic, will one be able to realize the way their geopolitical mind ticks today... Surprisingly, as you will read in what follows, it does it in the exact same manner as two millennia ago.

Let it be noted at the outset that the contemporary version of history of Serbs is almost entirely made up, in all of its geopolitical aspects. The leading Serb nationalist, academician Dobrica Ćosić [right], often called "Father of the nation", took a moment of his own soberness on one occasion, and admitted "We, the Serbs, lie inventively, we lie imaginatively, and we do it like no other people can." Indeed, Serbian and serbofile historians initially invented a story of Slav presence in the Balkans as early as 3rd century. For instance, a Byzantine historian Procopius claimed that the original name of the Sclavenes was Spo/roi. Though no one with brains would ever see any logics in his claim, still two serbofiles, Dobrovsky and Šafarik, readily added that this was "a corruption of Srbi (Serbs)", thus describing one obvious nonsense with another. Not only that this was a scientific fallacy, but as J.B. Bury says: "Thesis maintained by Šafarik and Drinov, and defended by Jirežek, that Slavs had begun to settle into the Balkan Peninsula already in the third century A.D., and that the Carpi and Kostoboks were Slavonic peoples, must be rejected as resting on insufficient evidence." This was the first attempt at falsifying Serb history; fortunately it failed. Indeed, one after other, all Serbian myths fell apart by now...
The Slavs started showing up in the Balkans in the 6th-7th century, but there lies a fallacy again: while Serbian historians maintain this was a case of "a migration", in fact it was (and still is, as we speak) the case of bloodthirsty invasion; what Serbs did to civilians of Srebrenica in 1995 [right] for example, was no different than what they did to unarmed civilians of Drač in 548. Also, those first invading hordes were not numerous; they were esteemed by their terrified enemies far larger than they actually were, due to unprecedented atrocities they regularly committed. The fate of the populations the Slavs would attack was to be partly exterminated, partly enslaved, and sometimes transplanted from one territory to another, while the women became a prey to the lusts of the conquerors. (For example, Hitler was fascinated with Slavic barbarism and incorporated their methods of cruelty into his SS-units and the "final solution" strategy for all non-Germanic peoples). The peasants were so systematically plundered by the Slavs that they were often forced to abandon the rearing of cattle and reduced to vegetarianism. On one reported occasion in the 6th century, while careful to avoid the Roman legions, Slavs attacked in just a few months numerous cities populated by unarmed civilians, including today's city of Drač in Albania where they killed 7000 men and boys in just two days, while enslaving and raping the women and children. While similarity with Srebrenica of 1995 is simply staggering, Drač was just one amongst thousands upon thousands of the recorded and supposed cases of Slavic genocides from the Antiquity until today. Another example of cowardly massacres was a Serbian genocide of up to 20.000 unarmed civilians in just one day in several cities along the Black Sea coast in the 7th century...
Just how cruel the Slavs [horde pictured right] were is described by Procopius who in 550 AD sums up the situation: "Illyricum and Thrace, from the Ionian Sea to the suburbs of Byzantium, were overrun almost every year since Justinian's accession to the throne [527 AD] by Huns, Sclavenes, and Antae, who dealt atrociously with the inhabitants. In every invasion I suppose that about 200,000 Roman subjects were killed or enslaved; the whole land became a sort of Scythian desert." Counting some 20 years since Justinian took the throne till the above report was written, it turns out that, in just a few decades, these savages had massacred around 4 million people! This compares to the present-day demographics of 100 million people, which is the total number of deaths from both World Wars together! And as Procopius and other sources note, of all three tribes Slavs committed the most gruesome crimes too. Unbelievable as it may sound, but no such thing as Slav-horde atrocities was ever reported in any textbook in the fmr. Yugoslavia's school system! What a taboo that was! Instead, Serbian historians regularly regarded Slavs as "peaceful, migrating people, who lived from cattle and land cultivation", and the period between the Antiquity and Ottoman occupation of the Balkans as "the dark times of which little is known". This clearly shows that a collective mind of legitimizing atrocities committed by Serbs has been well and alive for the past few centuries, and it can only be expected that the latest genocide their collective has committed in Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo from 1991-1997 will once again be pardoned by their top intellectuals, such as the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SANU) in Belgrade. Granted, those intellectuals must be well aware of what their stock really is like. But, why the Serbs remain so wild and uncivilized till this day? To answer this question we must return in time to their very beginnings...
One of the obscure but most important consequences of the great battle of the Netad (which dissolved the empire of Attila the Hun - pictured left) was the westward and southward expansion of the Slavs towards the Elbe and towards the Danube. The prehistoric home of the Slavs was in the marshlands of the river Pripet, which flows into the Dniepr north of Kiev. This unhealthy district (even then, but today even more infamous for the Chernobyl nuclear disaster), known as Polesia, hardly half as large as England, is now inhabited by White Russians of Belarus and Ukraine. Being the Europe's largest swamp, it could produce little corn as it could only be cultivated in spots, and it was so entirely unsuitable for cattle that the Serbs had no native words for cattle or milk. They reared swine, but their food chiefly consisted of fish and the manna-grass which grows freely in the marshy soil. The nature of the territory, impeding free and constant intercourse, hindered the establishment of political unity. The Slavs of Polesia didn't form a state; they had no king; they lived in small isolated village groups, under patriarchal government. Their history, from the earliest times, was a true tragedy, close to be called a horror story. Their proximity to the steppes of Southern Russia exposed them as a prey to the Asiatic mounted nomads who successively invaded and occupied the lands between the Don and the Dniester.

Living as they did, they couldn't combine against these enemies who plundered them and carried them off as slaves (hence the term serf in late Roman records, from Latin servus for servant or slave, which the Serbian infamous nationalist Vuk Karadžić took to mean Serb). They could only protect themselves by hiding in the forest or in the waters of their swamps. They built their huts with several doors to facilitate escape when danger threatened; they hid their belongings, which were as few as possible, in the earth (in zemunicas). They could elude a foe by diving under the water and lying for hours on the bottom, breathing through a long reed, which only the most experienced pursuers could detect. Thus their early history is marked by great deal of cowardliness imprinted in their psyche, which unavoidably and critically reflected upon how they executed their military affairs - by attacking civilians only, while murdering unarmed men and boys, and committing mass rapes of women and children. As if their own horror (life of a hunted game) wasn't enough, they even encountered additional causes to a true syndrome of collective psychopathic disorder that the tribe known as Serbs exhibits to this day.

Namely, after the Slavs began to spread silently beyond the borders of Polesia, northward, eastward, and southward, in the 4th century they were conquered by Hermanric, king of the Ostrogoths, and included in his extensive realm. They enjoyed a brief interlude of German tyranny instead of nomad raids; then the Huns appeared and they were exposed once more to the oppression which had been their secular lot. They had probably learned much from the Goths; but when they emerged at length into the full light of history in the 6th century, they still retained most of the characteristics which their life in Polesia had impressed upon them. They lived far apart from one another in wretched hovels; though they had learned to act together, they did not abandon their freedom to the authority of a king. Revolting against military discipline, they had no battle array and seldom met a foe in the open field. Their arms were a shield, darts, and poisoned arrows. They were perfidious, for no compact could bind them all; but they are praised for their hospitality to strangers and for the fidelity of their women. (Indeed we can confirm that these are the individual Serbs as we know them today too, so it cannot be that the collective Serbs are any different today than what was the case then, either).

As one might expect, they had no common name. Slav, by which we designate all the various peoples who spread far and wide in Eastern Europe from the original Polesian home, comes from Slovene, which appears originally to have been a local name attached to a particular group dwelling at a place called Slovy; and the fortunes of the name are due to the fact that this group was among the first to come into contact with the Roman Empire, mostly as intruders, looters and murderous hordes. Before the reign of Justinian of 527 AD these Sclavenes [today's Serbians and Croatians], as Procopius calls them (and Vuk Karadžić - on the left - maliciously translates in the 18th century as "Serbs", subsequently naming Croatians "Catholic Serbs" and Bosnians "Mohammedan Serbs"), had along with another kindred people, the Antae [today mixed into southern Serbians, Macedonians and Bulgarians], settled neighborhood of the Bulgarians, along the banks of the Lower Danube. Antae is not a Slavonic name, and it's not unlikely that they were a Slavonic tribe which had been conquered and organized by a non-Slavonic people — somewhat as in later times the Slavs of Moesia [Vojvodina, and north of today's Sandžak] were conquered by the Bulgarians and took their name of Sclavenes. However this may be, these new neighbors of the Roman Empire now began to exchange the role of victims for that of plunderers.

Like the Huns, the Sclavenes supplied auxiliaries for the Eastern Roman army. Along with the Huns they were always watching for an opportunity to cross the Danube and plunder the Roman provinces Illyria [Bosnia, Croatia, Albania], Thracia [Serbia, Bulgaria] and Dacia [Romania]. In A.D. 540 the Bulgarians with a host exceptionally huge devastated the peninsula from sea to sea. They forced their way through the Long Wall and spread terror to the suburbs of the capital. They then occupied Chersonesus [near today's Sevastopol, Ukraine], and some of them even crossed the Hellespont [Dardanelles] and ravaged the opposite coast. They laid waste Thessaly and Northern Greece; the Peloponnesus was saved by the fortifications of the Isthmus so it seems Slavs were not well-versed in siegecraft. Many of the castles and walled towns did fall into their hands however, and their captives were numbered by tens of thousands. This experience moved Justinian to undertake the construction of an extensive system of fortifications. Soon after this invasion a quarrel broke out between the Sclavenes and the Antae, and Justinian seized the opportunity to inflame their rivalry by offering to the Antae a settlement at Turris, an old foundation of Trajan on the further side of the Lower Danube, where as federates of the Empire, in receipt of annual subsidies, they should act as a bulwark against the Bulgarians. The proposal was accepted, as in the subsequent invasions the Antae have taken no part. In A.D. 545 the Sclavenes were thoroughly defeated in Thrace by an elderly Roman general Narses. But they were not to be stopped.

Three years later the same marauders devastated Illyricum as far as Dyrrhachium [Drač in today's Albania], and in 549 AD a band of 3000 penetrated to the Hebrus [Maritsa - the longest river in the Balkans], where they divided into two parties, of which one ravaged Illyricum and the other Thrace. The maritime city of Topirus was taken, and the cruelties committed by the Sclavenes exceed in atrocity all that is recorded of the invasions of the Huns of Attila. In the following summer the Sclavenes came again, intending to attack Thessalonica, but [a general of the Byzantine Empire] Germanus Justinus happened to be at Sardica [today's Sofia], making preparations to take reinforcements to Italy. The terror of his name diverted the Slavs from their southward course and they invaded Dalmatia [today's Bosnia]. Permanent Slavonic settlements on Imperial soil were not to begin till about twenty years after (eastern) Emperor Justinian's death of 565 AD, but the genocidal atrocities described above were only the prelude to the territorial occupation which was to determine the future history of south-eastern Europe as we know it today.

It follows from the above that not only Serbian historians are mainly lying today still, but the only geopolitical goal that the Serbs have in Bosnia today as yesterday is to move their habitat frontier from the river Drina on to the west. They will spare no one and nothing for their goal [photos above, 1943, and right, 1993] as that seems to be inscribed in their genetic code. They are a psychopathic tribe that became such after millennia of their own tragedy turning them savages of the worst kind. And they have remained thus until this day. Hence the leading Serbian intellectual of today, academician Milorad Ekmečić, tells in his recent address to the SANU Academy in August 2007:
"The historical foundations on which the Republika Srpska was designed as a remnant of the remnants of the Serbian ethnic territory west from Drina River represent a historical constant of Republika Srpska's existence in the future. Republika Srpska draws its right to existence from this legitimate foundation, regardless of how much, from the moral point of view, it is a result of the violation of all international norms of the western states that were deciding on [its creation]". Clearly, he justifies the means by the goal, stating that all means are allowed for their territorial aspirations. A criminal mind Hitler would gladly employ as his Reichminister!

Ekmečić [pictured left-middle, SANU in session], a harmless-looking yet Nazi-minded "Eichmann of the Balkans" (often accompanied by other genocidal minds such as academician Dobrica Ćosić and academician Nenad Kecmanović), has thus spoken up culprit thinking in its purest form; at the same time mocking the civilization values to which Serbia officially abides (pledging to join the EU). This man is considered the "brain" of a 9-million nation of Serbians. He also used to be a member of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia-Herzegovina; prior to the latest Genocide of 1992 when he escaped to Belgrade. Let it be mentioned in the end, with sadness, that there's no professional help for collectively demented peoples. As history teaches us, in instances when such a total collective dementia should arise, the brutal physical restraint remains the only successful method of deterrence. Looking back at the Serbs' history, one can see that over the past centuries the Serbs have simply sacrificed many dozens of their own political and military leaders (Milošević being the latest) in order to get to where they are right now. It tells of their culprit nature as a most heinous one, and exposes them as having a crucial strategic goal – a well defined agenda (of permanent territorial expansion). After the ridiculous 2007 verdict by the International Criminal Court in Hague, it's very obvious that Europe never learned the history lesson of the 1930-ies. By padding the beast on its shoulders for the past decade or so, Europe thus stays firmly a course to repeating her own horrendous history once again.

Sunday, September 2, 2007

Third Illyrian War (Bosnia, 6 - 9 AD)

After conquering the Kingdom of Illyria (officially in 168 BC, but effectively around 30 BC), the Romans established their occupationist administration, and instated compulsory military service for local men (non-Roman citizens) who thus composed the so-called auxiliary troops or auxilia. They were used mostly for hardest roles on the battlefield, such as for light-armed infantry [left], archers and cavalry [below]. The largest auxiliary units in Illyria proper were the Breucorum regiment in northern Bosnia composed of Breuci tribe (from Brčko and southward), the Delmatarum regiment composed of Dalmatae tribe (from southern Bosnia and the coast of the Illyrian Sea), the Latobicorum regiment composed of Latobici tribe (along the Sava river), and the Authoitarum regiment composed of Autariatae tribe (from central Bosnia and Sandžak in today's eastern Serbia). Physiologically distinct features of the anthropological type inhabiting those areas remain preserved until this day. This is the crucial proof in favor of the Wilkes's assertion that no "Romanization", "Hellenization" (and by extension, no "Slavicization") had ever taken place in Bosnia.
In year 6 AD, the Dalmatarum regiment from southern Bosnia was called up in preparations for a campaign under the emperor Augustus against Germans whom Italy wanted crashed. Once gathered however, the soldiers began demanding more rights as well as pay increase. The Illyrians knew the Romans would never accept those demands, so they were basically using the Romans just to provide arms and logistics for another cause... Namely, since the Romans had disarmed them entirely just a few decades earlier, it was only in this way that the Illyrians could have succeeded in a war for liberation. Indeed, after getting hold of arms and supplies, the Dalmatarum regiment soon was joined by the Breucorum regiment from the north, and wide-range military operations were initiated. Those tribes that had rejected any Roman authority, such as Daesitiates and Andisetes from central Bosnia, supplied their able men. Entire Bosnia and Sandžak burst in flames as the dreamed-about freedom for Illyria seemed to be coming at long last.
A Roman historian Suetonius writes of the Roman campaign to stop the freedom fighters: "When the revolt of Illyricum was reported, [then-general and heir to the throne] Tiberius [stepson of emperor Augustus] was transferred to the charge of a new war, the most serious of all foreign wars since those with Carthage [the Punic Wars of two centuries earlier], which he carried on for three years with fifteen legions and a corresponding force of auxiliaries, amid great difficulties of every kind and the utmost scarcity of supplies." Note the historian's disposition on this war, where he downplays it as a "revolt" instead of war for liberation; similarity with the present-day liberation wars in Palestine and Iraq, where the western media and historians alike address the issue as a matter of rebellion, is staggering. Identically, mainstream historians treat this Third Illyrian War as a mere rebellion too, despite the fact that Suetonius is generally recognized as a reliable source, and that he qualifies the war as being at the same level of difficulty for the Rome as the Punic Wars (that make it to every history textbook).
In order to compose more troops, the Romans recruited all convicted criminals and peasants available throughout Italy. They then resorted to the compulsory purchase and emancipation of thousands of slaves in provinces outside Italy too. The war was becoming extremely serious, threatening to weaken the Italy's eastern frontier and open it to the German tribes who sought to misuse the Illyrians as cannon meat, as the Rome began threatening to destroy Germans for good. The Romans finally managed to put together some 200,000-strong army that included many Thracians/Dacians. (The Romans were well-versed in "divide and rule" tactics, using neighboring tribes to fight each other, so that in the coming campaign against Dacia one century later the Romans under emperor Trajan used Illyrians to fight against Dacians as well as against Syrians). The Roman losses were just unbearable in Bosnia, mostly due to a bitter guerrilla war in the Bosnian mountains. The climate conditions only increased the losses as the war took place in the middle of the Antiquity's wettest period in the Mediterranean climate dynamics, lasting from 100 BC to 300 AD. Since this could have only prolonged Bosnian harsh winters, and since the Roman army rested during the winter, the war took three years of extreme fighting and large setbacks for the aggressor before the Illyrians were finally subdued. While the outcome is known (the Romans had finally occupied Illyria/Bosnia in 9 AD), there are no reliable documents describing the actual battles in Bosnia during those calamity years, or describing the Roman revenge to Bosnians for such a colossal back-stabbing under German influence, a reprisal that most certainly would have been horrific. This is in contrast to the situation we have with the well-documented records of Roman campaigns to conquer other provinces such as Dacia, as well as records of the Romans' acts of vengeance (see article of 26 August).
By entering into geopolitical-strategic alliances with Germans (against the Rome), the Illyrians-Bosnians obviously had proven to be anything but "slow-witted", as they simply desired freedom. This exposes Romanic and Hellenic historic sources on Illyria as largely unreliable in treating Illyria proper, which is again remarkably similar to the present-day treatments of Bosnia by Serbia's, Croatia's and regional and other historic sources as well. Bosnian history must finally get into the hands of Bosnia's historians and people. To that effect, I hereby make the concluding remark of this article: the etymology of the word Andisete (a tribesman from central Bosnia) is suggested by some to be rooted in andén (Spanish for platform, or a terrace in the context of high topography; some historians claim that the Andes mountain chain in South America could have been named by first Conquistadors after the terraces of Incas; however, alternative plausible explanations exist as well). No detailed record on the Illyrian tribe of Andisetes survives to this day. Given the extensive surviving account of the Roman destruction of terraced cities in Dacia one century later (see article of 26 August), Visočica and the surrounding hills might as well been the place where the Andisetes had built their terraced cities and subsequently had been named accordingly by pre-Roman Indo-European-speaking sources. Alternatively, the word Andisetes could also stem from andron (Latin for an aisle, a corridor) in which case it could have been the Romans that had named the Andisetes (after terraces resembling aisles)... Not less importantly, in terms of geopolitics the Visoko area would have been a most probable locale for an entirely separate tribe, as Visoko is situated at the meeting point of the three largest Bosnian tribes' territories: the Autariatae, the Breuci, and the Dalmatae [see the map above; note that a Roman geopolitical map is easily recognized as it shows just the strategically most significant (largest and most spread out) tribes]. This would assign to the Andisetes a geoposition which is slightly removed from what's reported by other sources (listing them a few 100 km to the east - at the left banks of the river Drinus/Drina); however, this sort of locational inaccuracy amongst different Antiquity sources and maps is quite common.

Saturday, September 1, 2007

Illyrians or slaves, not Slavs!

Two great misconceptions, mostly malicious (nationalist-chauvinist-driven), reign the historical sciences in the western-Balkans for the last two and a half centuries. The first misconception concerns the never-ending disputation between the Albanian and the Serbian school. While the former school claims Albanians to be the last (only authentic?) surviving Illyrians, the latter claims not only that Albanians are Thracians (i.e., not Illyrians) but it also says that no such people as Illyrians has ever existed, instead contending that the locals were all Slav/Serb because ancient sources are filled with references to "sclavs" and "serfs"... The second misconception is related to the first, and it concerns the issue of who the Slavs were (or weren't) in the Balkans before the national awakening of the 18th century... The reason for the two schools being so unapologetic lies in the possible answers to the crucial question they thus pose: Whose is the western Balkans? But being so extreme, neither of those two views seems very authentic; besides, no other interested parties living in the area have ever been asked for their opinion on the above two fundamental disputes that can (and do - as we speak) have great repercussions on lives of millions. At the same time, both schools oppose wholeheartedly and fight fiercely any idea of Bosnia-centered Illyria, even though the idea is supported by a world's leading authority on Illyrians, Professor of Roman and Greek archaeology John Wilkes (the author of "The Illyrians", Oxford Press 2000).
The first dispute is dealt with easily just by stacking ancient maps in time. Thus by looking at the Ptolemy's Map [on the left] one can see that (province of) Illyria was alive and well just around year 100 AD, i.e. about the time the legend of Christ took roots. Following the situation as it developed, some centuries later there it is yet again [on the right] - amongst other Roman provinces including the conquered Dacia (today's Romania). What's curious about this however is that of all the provinces shown on the maps, only the detailed records on how Illyria was conquered are missing, unlike say the well-documented conquest of Dacia (see article of 26 August). However, it's not just that military papers are mysteriously lost, but according to Wilkes "even today Illyrians barely make the footnotes in most versions of ancient history" as well. Indeed, with exception of a partly preserved appendix on Illyrian wars, by Appian of Alexandria (95-165 AD), there is virtually no complete account available on (the conquest of) Illyria!
Wilkes supports the concept of a Bosnia-centered Illyria, proposing that it's actually Bosnia, not Albania, which was (the center of) Illyria. This is also obvious from the maps shown here. It's rather a mystery how Bosnia, so prominent and nearby the Rome itself, could have gotten omitted from most texts from/on the Roman Empire. He writes of Illyrians:
(1) "...A separate group of Illyrians identified by renowned historian Geza Alfoldy: he identifies 'Pannonian peoples' in Bosnia, northern Montenegro [around Pljevlja and Prijepolje, p.84] and western Serbia [Sandžak]". p.75
(2) "Not much reliance should perhaps be placed on attempts to identify an Illyrian anthropological type as short and dark-skinned similar to modern Albanians." p.219
(3) "...a documented description of Illyrians, Pannonian family: -Pannonians are tall and strong, always ready for a fight and to face dangeour but slow-witted." p.219
(4) "Life has always been hard in the Illyrian lands and countless wars of resistance against invaders are testimony to the durability of their populations." p.220
(5) "In sum, the destructive impact [of Bosnia-centred theory] on the earlier generalizations regarding Illyrians should be regarded as a step forward." p.40.
The Illyrians-Bogomils-Bosniaks continuity is self-evident as the above finds coincide with the settlements of today's Bosniaks (the Muslims of the Balkans). Note ancient maps [above] corroborating the early Antiquity-Ottoman Empire continuity too: there [left] you can see that, of the entire western Balkans, only Bosnia was called Illyria (proper) with own Sea called Illyricum Mare (part of a larger, Adriatic - Emperor Hadrian's Sea). It can be also seen that during the whole time of their independence, Illyrians had a coast from today's Dubrovnik to Šibenik. This simply continued (wasn't given to Bosnia by anyone!) during the entire period of Middle Ages [right], after the Holy See helped establish Kingdom of Bosnia just like many other European kingdoms that Vatican designed so to replace the fallen Roman Empire with a kingdoms-padded geopolitical shield protecting Rome for millennia to come - if you can't have one huge empire any more, then have a number of loyal and small nonetheless resilient states instead. Given that there are more than 200 scholastic theories on why the Empire fell (meaning no one has a slightest clue as to why it happened), it could also be that it never has fallen but was transformed (in the above described manner) instead.
Contrary to common belief, for the most part of their long history Illyrians/Bosnians had a strong fleet, brave infantry, and able generals. As immediate neighbors of the Romans and Greeks, they were enormously envied however. Therefore no Roman or Greek record referred to the Illyrians in any other way except as "pirates", "thieves", "barbarians", "rebels" or even "sclavs" and "serfs" (Lat. sclavo = Slav; serf = servus = slave, later on 'exiled Russian slave'), both terms used by the Romans as insult only, i.e., long before the 6th century when real Slav hordes began attacking and committing mass murder of thousands of Illyrians at a time, always careful not to encounter the Roman legions but only unarmed civilians (thus "softening" the Roman defenses that semi-relied on non-Italian recruits in Illyria and Thracia; before moving the border of civilizations westward to Drina River and on). Probably, the insults were part of the first geopolitical game ever played in the Antiquity, where both Rome and Greece played on the card of a well-known geopolitical fact that your immediate neighbor is your enemy, and that your immediate neighbor's neighbor is your natural ally. Similarly, later on, in the 18th century, Serbian nationalists will claim that all "sclav" and "serf" ever mentioned in the Antiquity were actually Serbs. (In the same grabbing manner they simplistically and systematically translated all appearances of 'Sclavoniae' in Latin texts, as 'Serbia(n)'.) Thus it's Serbian relentless nationalism that makes it important to set the record straight - today more than ever. Hence etymology of the word 'sclav' is completely unrelated to what's contended, so Serbia's historians cannot claim Slavic heritage from the ancient times for any of the peoples westward from the Drina, just like Albanians cannot claim their exclusive, pure-Illyrian heritage either. The real (and the only statistically significant) Slavs that exist in Bosnia nowadays are the Bosnian Orthodox (self-styled "Bosnian Serbs" although most are born in Bosnia) whose immediate ancestors (up to third knee) largely moved in from Serbia and Croatia during the last ninety years or so, thanks to Austria's and Serbia's administrations trying to Christianize the domestic Illyrian population.
No wonder both (and only) the Serbian and Albanian schools largely dismiss Wilkes (thus giving him an enormous credibility), for Wilkes says it's hard to believe Bosnian-Illyrian tribes were "Romanized", "Hellenized", etc. This however is what the Serbian school needs desperately so that they too can claim that the same tribes had been also "Slavicized" after the fall of the Western Roman Empire and into the Mid Ages. Everyday experience however teaches us that assimilation of entire peoples/tribes under occupation is practically impossible, and can instead be expected to occur only in individuals moving to a foreign land. The maximum extent to which assimilation is able to get is already known from everyday life, the best example being our present-day diaspora: our refugees who got entirely surrounded by foreign language adopt that language as quickly as by 2nd generation. On the other hand, an occupation is an occupation is... then as nowadays - take for instance the Ottoman occupation of Bosnia (1527-1878) during which time Bosnians acquired only religion from their occupationists, but not their culture, tradition, or language for that matter. It has been suggested that Bosnians had attained language from the Slavs, and religion from the Turks, but it's a fact that they had never adopted both from the both. This arbitrariness is an important circumstantial evidence that "Romanization", "Hellenization", "Slavization", "Turkization", or "Germanization" were all practically impossible in Bosnia! Finally, if such "izations" were at all possible, why is it that the Bosnians adopted neither religion nor language from the Austrian occupationists too? The relatively shorter duration of that occupation compared to the other two occupations cannot be the answer because say the Roman occupation had lasted much longer than any other, yet most of the Illyrians-Bosnians had adopted neither Latin language nor Catholic religion, not to mention Roman culture, art or tradition.
Also, as Wilkes suggests, given the military mindedness of the Illyrians [royal armor shown above, soldier's armor on the left], as well as their vigilance and resistance to numerous conquerors through ages, it can be said with high certainty that today's Bosnians [Bosnian Muslims and Catholics] are direct descendants of the Illyrians who never "disappeared" or "got assimilated". Add to this the non-stop putting-down of Bosnians (via jokes akin of those on "slow-witted" Illyrians) that continues to this day and is mostly favored in Serbia and Croatia (same as in Greece and Rome a few millennia ago). Namely, this is an anecdotal evidence for validity of the Bosnia-centered theory of Illyria. Be it noted at the end that authenticity of many intermediate maps (produced in times before or after the maps showed above) can also be questioned, as such maps mostly come from Serbian (and to a lesser extent Croatian, albeit not less confused and not less nationalist-chauvinist) sources. Therefore it'd be useful to deliberately dispute all Serbian and Croatian historical references (sources, maps, analyses) on ancient and medieval Bosnia, at least until the time tells the true science from nationalist-driven (geo)politics. Unfortunately, history of Europe is history of war, even more so in case of the Balkans, and even more so still in case of Bosnia. Therefore, most of the grand events/undertakings in the area can probably be explained by geopolitical motives and related military activities. I don't need to remind the reader that the same overlaying set of rules applies to Bosnia even today, as it did in her recent past (Dayton Accord 1995, Teheran Conference 1943, Berlin Congress 1878), the most recent Kosovo-Bosnia connection - including the 1992-1995 aggression - being its latest manifestation as we speak... This is also why in the above I use geopolitical maps only (to show that most of the intermediate maps are unreliable), for geopolitics is "oberpolitics", with everything else (including history) from Antiquity till today being nothing more than its byproduct.

Wednesday, August 29, 2007

Tunneling in ancient times

Humans had built tunnels even during the Stone Age. [Pictured right is a Bronze Age tunnel at Tell el-Ajjul in Palestine.] The world's oldest known exploitation tunnel, found in the Hallstatt (Austria) salt-mine, is dated to 2500 BC but it was probably used even earlier. In Babylonia, tunnels were used extensively for irrigation. Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Greek and Roman engineers all had perfected tunneling techniques to admirable levels. Thus brick-lined pedestrian passages were built as early as 2200 BC. One such undertaking, 900 m long, 4 m high, and 5 m wide was accomplished under the Euphrates River, for which the river had to be diverted during the dry season. The Egyptians developed techniques for cutting soft rocks with copper saws and hollow reed drills, both surrounded by an abrasive, a technique probably used first for quarrying stone blocks and later in excavating temple rooms inside rock cliffs...
The Greeks and Romans both made extensive use of tunnels too: to reclaim marshes by drainage and for water aqueducts, such as the 6th-century-BC Greek water tunnel on the isle of Samos driven more than 1 km through limestone with a cross section about 2 m square. [Pictured left is the Siloam water-supply tunnel in Jerusalem, 700 BC.] A Roman road tunnel 1,500 m long, 8 m wide, and 9 m high, connecting Naples and Pozzuoliwas, was executed in 36 BC. By that time surveying methods (commonly by gromas; string line and plumb bobs) had been introduced, and tunnels were advanced from a succession of closely spaced shafts to provide ventilation.
One would think that any ancient tunneling could have been accomplished through soft material only. However, quite the opposite applies: given completely expendable work power (slaves), and in order to save the need for a lining, most Greek and Roman tunnels were located in reasonably strong rock, which was broken off (spalled) by so-called fire quenching, a method involving heating the rock with fire and suddenly cooling it by dousing with water. Ventilation methods were primitive, and most tunnels claimed the lives of hundreds or even thousands of the slaves. How dedicated and cruel the Romans were in the tunneling work is seen from an AD 41 undertaking when the Romans, under Illyrian-born emperor Marcus Aurelius Claudius, used 30,000 men for 10 years to push a 6 km long, 3 m high, and 2 m wide tunnel driven under Mt. Salviano to drain Lacus Fucinus (Fucino Lake). Since the basin is one of the most seismically active regions in Italy, they succeeded only partly. After series of earthquakes the tunnel ruptured, got buried, and the lake returned by the 6th century; it was completely drained in the 19th century, and the resulting plane [pictured below] is now one of the most fertile regions of all Italy.
Location of former lake Fucino, drained first via a 6-km-long Roman tunnel
Obviously, given their extensive knowledge of construction and surveying (see the post of 11 August), to build a few kilometres of small-profile sapping tunnels through limestone and sandstone of the Visoko area wouldn't be deemed too difficult by the Romans who could (and without hesitation would) use readily available man power i.e. slaves and "barbarians" easily found throughout Illyria. Besides man power, the Romans had enough time on their hands too, as ancient war campaigns normally took years to decades to accomplish.